on and upon
on is used to refer things at rest while upon denotes motion.
- The book is on the table.
- The cat jumped upon the table.
in and into
in is used to refer position at rest while into denotes motion.
- She is in the Kitchen
- She came into the Kitchen.
with and by
with is used to refer instruments or tools and by is used for the agent or doer.
- I am drawing a picture with a pen.
- The terrorist was killed by him with a knife.
since and for
since is used for a point of time and for is used for a period of time.
- He has been waiting since 7 o’clock.
- She has been going to mall for four days.
since and from
since is used for referring time while from is used for both time and place.
- I have not seen her since last week.
-They traveled from Noida to Gurugram.
Note: In future Tense from is used in place of since.
- She has not come here since Sunday.
- She will not come here from Sunday.
till and to
till is used to indicate time while to is used to indicate place.
- He played till 10 am.
- We went to stadium.
at and in
at is used for small towns and villages while in is used for big cities and countries.
- She live at Cleo County in Noida.
- I live in Delhi.
at is used for a point of time and in is used for wider period of time.
- They will go at 6 o’clock.
- They will go in the evening.
- We left at 9 o’clock in the morning.
in and within
in denotes at the close of some future time, and within denotes some time short of the close.
- They will return in two days.
- She will return within a week.
between and among
between is used for two persons or things while among is used for more than two persons or things.
- Those two girls quarreled between themselves.
- I like to spend my evening among my friends.
Note: Between is followed by Conjunction and if two sentences/phrases are joined. (refer conjunctions). However, if Noun/ Pronoun is used after between they should be in plural form.
- Between themselves, between candidates etc.
Also Note: usage of each/ every is restricted after Between.
It is incorrect to say
Between each countries. (incorrect)
among and amongst
among and amongst are used in the same sense (as explained above). Among is used before the Consonant Sound and Amongst is used before Vowel Sound.
Among them, Amongst us.
amid & amidst
Amid & Amidst are used in sense of between for more than two persons/ things. Amid is used before the Consonant Sound and Amidst is used before Vowel Sound.
across- through- come across
Across means on the opposite side of (as preposition) OR both sides (as Adverb)
- There is a library just across the river.
Come across means meet/ find someone/something by chance.
- I came across these old books recently.
Through means from beginning to the end of something/place.
- Water Supplies will not last through the winters.
Please note: Suddenly is not used before Come across.
over - under
Both are used to denote vertical positions above and below a reference point/place without touching the point.
- There is light over the table.
- A boy hiding under the table.
before - in front of
Before has two meanings: In front of and earlier in time
In front of means: people or things facing each other
- He came before you.
- The car is parked in front of the gate.
in spite of – despite
In spite of and despite have a same meaning i.e. even though.
The only difference is that of is not used after despite.
- Despite of the best efforts made by the government the condition of the country of the county us going from bad to worse. (incorrect) [delete of after despite]
beside and besides
Beside means by the side of, while besides means in addition to.
- He came and sat beside me.
- Besides being fined, she was sentenced to a term of imprisonment.
Preposition is not used after transitive verbs like discuss, describe, reach, order, tell, attack, demand, resemble etc. when they are used in active voice.
- Keats described about the beauty of nature in his poem (incorrect) [remove about]
Objective case is used after preposition.
- He does not depend on them.
- I do not talk to him.
If there are two verbs that should be followed by different prepositions, both prepositions must be specified.
- He was surprised at as well as pleased with my work.
Verb is used in present participle (verb + ing) form if it is preceded by preposition like about, after, at, before, for, from, in, on, to etc.
- I do not believe in wasting time.
- She was punished for doing it.
Preposition is not usually used before home but to is used if possessive case is used after before home.
- She is going home tonight.
- We have gone to Shika’s home.
Say, suggest, speak listen, reply, talk, complain etc are always followed by to if a person is used as an object after these verbs.
- They are not listening to me.
- I suggested to Anjali that she should take medicine regularly.
Preposition is not used before yesterday, today, tomorrow, last night, this morning, the next day.
- She went last night.
- They will arrive here tomorrow.
Suddenly and with are never used with come across. Come across is used to mean to find or encounter.
- I suddenly came across Priya. (incorrect) [delete suddenly]
- I came across with him. (incorrect) [delete with]
1) Following words are usually followed by for.
Nouns: - ambition, affection, apology, anxiety, blame, candidate, capacity, compensation, desire, esteem, fondness, guarantee, match, need, opportunity, passion, reputation.
Adjective: - anxious, conspicuous, designed, eager, eligible, eminent, fit, grateful, prepared, qualified, ready, sorry, sufficient, useful.
Verbs: - canvas, care, hope, mourn, search, stipulate, wish.
- She has only ambition for fame in life.
- He was anxious for getting more secrets.
2) Following words are usually followed by to
Noun: - access, approach, assent, attention, dislike, disgrace, indifference, invitation, key, leniency, likeness, limit, obedience, obstruction, opposition, preface, reference, succession, temptation.
Adjectives and Participles: - acceptable, accustomed, addicted, adequate, adjacent, affectionate, alien, alive, applicable, comparable, appropriate, contrary, deaf, devoted, disastrous, due, entitled, equal, essential faithful, fatal, liable, obedient, obliged, opposite, painful, prior, reduced, sensitive, true.
Verbs: - accede, apologize, appoint, aspire, attend, belong, conform, lead, listen, object, occur, prefer, refer, yield.
Ior words ending with ‘ior’ (senior, junior, prior, superior etc) usually take to as preposition.
-The only access to the Mountain is by boat. [as noun]
-The basement locker is accessed from inside. [as verb]
3) Following words are usually followed by with
Nouns: - acquaintance, alliance, bargain, comparison, enmity, intimacy, relation.
Adjectives and particles: - acquainted, busy, consistent, contented, contrasted, delighted, disgusted, endowed, fatigued, fired, gifted, inspired, popular, satisfied.
Verb:- agree, bear, compare, clash, cope, compete, coincide, comply, confer, condole, correspond, cover, credit, deal, disagree, dispense, discuss, do, entrust, fill, go, grapple, interfere, meddle, part, play, quarrel, side, sympathize, threaten, trifle, vie, write, wipe, work.
-The students had no acquaintance with the subject.
4) Following words are usually followed by of
Nouns: - age, distrust, experience, fear, knowledge, need, necessaries neglect, opinion, proof, sense, victim, view, use, want.
Adjective: - afraid, ashamed, aware, bare, capable, confident, careful, convinced, conscious, deprived, devoid, dull, envious, fond, full, guilty, hopeful, ignorant, innocent, kind jealous, made proud, short, sure, tired, worthy.
Verb: - accuse, acquit, approve, beware, boast, complain, convict, deprive, dispose, dream, make, remind, repent, smell, think.
-They accused him of murder.
5) Following words are usually followed by at
Adjectives and particles: - amazed, amused, astonished, annoyed, clever, good, quick, slow, surprised.
Verbs: - aim, arrive, blush, call, catch, gaze, glance, fire, jump, laugh, look, smile, store, wonder.
- Nisha must aim at starting IT Consultancy.