We have already discussed the basics of Helping Verbs in the introduction of the course. Helping Verbs are divided into Primary Auxiliary Verbs & Modals.
In Primary Auxiliary, we have:-
V1 V2 V3
Be:- is/am/are | was/were | it is been
Have:- has/have | had | had
Do:- do/does | did | have/had done
In Modals, we have:-
Can, could, may, might, shall, will, would, should, must, ought to, need, dare, etc.
After the ‘be’ form of verb there is always usage of verb4 i.e verb+ing. But in passive voice, there is always usage of verb3
♦ is/am/are/was/were/been + verb4 (verb + ing)
- He was working hard. (correct) (usage of verb4)
♦ is/am/are/was/were/been + verb3 (Passive Voice)
- Good news is expected by us. (correct) (usage of Verb3 as the sentence is in passive voice)
Has is used with singular subject & have is used with plural subject & some pronoun.
Verb3 is always used with any form of ‘’have’’ if it indicates the completion of work
♦ Have /has/had +verb3.
- We have reached the station. (correct)
- she has lived here for a long time. (correct)
Note: Here, we have discussed the rule when have is used as helping verb; have also meant to possess, own (main verb)
With any form of ‘do’, we use verb1.
♦ Do/ does/ did + verb1
- She did not knew him. (incorrect)
- She did not know him. (correct)
Note: This rule is important, many times questions are framed using the wrong form of Verb after did.
When there are two subjects of different numbers and along with them, there is the usage of two auxiliary verbs then for both the subject the usage of auxiliary verbs should be specified.
- Three were happy but one sad. (incorrect) [here, three is a plural subject therefore were is used, but one is singular therefore was should be used with it]
- Three were happy but one was sad. (correct)
After Modal auxiliaries, there is always the usage of verb1.
- I can speak Hindi. (correct)
- You may start your exam now. (correct)
In a sentence, two modal auxiliaries are never used simultaneously. While using two modal auxiliaries a conjunction must be added between them.
- He should and must do it now. (correct) [should & must are modals and ‘and’ is conjunction between them]
When any primary auxiliary and Modal auxiliary is joined with ‘and‘ and for them, only one main verb is used then for both auxiliaries i.e. primary auxiliary and modal auxiliary the form of the main verb should be clear.
- She has and will work hard. (incorrect) [for has the main verb should be in verb3 and for will the main verb should be in verb1]
- She has worked and will work hard. (correct)
- She has done and will do it again. (correct)
Need & dare can be used as the main verb and modal. When need is used as main verb it means require & when dare is used as main verb it means courage to do something.
- He didn’t need proof. (correct) [used as main verb]
- He did not dare to ask about her. (correct)
► But if there is the usage of ‘not’ after ‘need’ & ‘dare’, then they become modal.
If need & dare is used as modal, we can neither use needs not nor dares not. Also, we should not use ‘to‘ after need not or after dare not.
- He dares not to cheat. (incorrect) [we should not use dares, nor we should use 'to' after dare not as dare not is modal here]
- He dare not cheat me. (correct)
Similarly, she need not wait any longer. (correct)