If a sentence given in Active Voice, refers to the action performed by the subject which is the primary duty of the subject, then in Passive Voice it is not necessary to mention that subject. like
- The teacher taught the students. [Active Voice]
- The students were taught. [Passive Voice, by the teacher is not added as teaching is the primary duty of the teacher]
Note: If such type of sentence is given in Passive Voice, then we should add the subject in Active Voice, like
- The thief was caught. [Passive Voice]
- Police caught the thief. [Active Voice, subject police is added]
In Active Voice, if the subject of the sentence is not clear or vague, then it is not necessary to mention that subject in Passive Voice. like
- People speak English all over the world. [Active Voice]
- English is spoken all over the world. [Passive Voice, we have not mentioned by people]
If any form of be is used as the main verb in Active Voice, then the sentence cannot be converted into passive. like
- She should be happy.
- I am independent. [passive conversion is not possible]
If a preposition/ adverb is used in Active Voice, then we should use that preposition/ Adverb in Passive voice.
- They listen to the song. [Active Voice] - The song is listened to. [Passive Voice]
- They looked for the driver. [Active Voice] - The driver was looked for. [Passive Voice]
In Passive Voice, Subject is placed after Verb which is usually connected by the preposition by. However, some verbs like know, happy, angry, surprise, please, shock, etc. can take preposition to after them while connecting with the Subject. like
- All the students in the classroom knew ScoreKhel.com. [Active Voice]
- ScoreKhel.com is known to all the students in classroom. [Passive Voice, usage of to after known instead of by]
In Active Voice, if a sentence has two objects, then Passive Conversion can be done by placing either object before verb.
- He gave me a pen. [Active Voice, two obj:- me & pen]
- I was given a pen by him. [Passive Voice, me is place before verb given]
-A pen was given to me by him. [Passive Voice]\
In Active Voice, if a sentence is negative and word nobody, no one etc. is used to make it negative, then in Passive Voice word anybody, anyone etc is used in place of nobody, no one etc. like
- Nobody can do this. [Active Voice]
- This cannot be done by anybody. [Passive Voice]
If structure of sentence is like is/ am/ are/ was/ were/ has/ have/ had + to + V1 in Active Voice, then in Passive Voice structure is like is/ am/ are/ was/ were/ has/ have/ had + to be + V3 in Passive Voice.
-I have to learn this formula. [Active Voice]
-This formula has to be learned by me. [Passive Voice]
Sentences used to issue a command or instruction, make a request, or offer advice or moral suggestion are called Imperative Sentences. For conversion of imperative sentences from Active to Passive Voice we can categorize imperative sentences into sentences with object, sentences without object (intransitive), sentences making requests and sentences offering moral suggestions.
Sentences with object
Imperative Sentence with structure Verb + Obj in Active Voice can be converted into passive with the following structure:
Let + obj + be + V3 OR You are ordered/ suggested/ instructed etc. + to + V1 + obj.
Play the music. [Active Voice, music is object here.]
Let the music be played. [Passive Voice] or,
You are ordered to play the music. [Passive Voice]
Sentences without object (intransitive)
Imperative Sentences without object can be converted into passive with structure: You are ordered/ requested/ forbidden etc. + to + V + obj.
Work hard for improvement. [Active Voice]
You are advised to work hard down for improvement. [Passive Voice]
Sentences making Request
Usually, the word please is added in Active Voice for making request. For converting such sentences into passive, we should use word requested to before verb. Like
Please open the door. [Active Voice]
You are requested to open the door. [Passive Voice]
If a sentence is of moral suggestion, we should convert it into passive voice with structure: Obj + should + be + V3
Take decisions wisely. [Active Voice]
The decisions should be taken wisely. [Passive Voice]
Interrogative Sentences can either start with Question words like Why, How, When, Where, What or with Auxiliary Verbs. like:-
- Why have you opened the door? [Active Voice]
- Have you opened the door? [Active Voice]
- Why has the door been opened? [Passive Voice]
- Has the door been opened by you? [Active Voice]
Rules for conversation of Interrogative Sentences to Passive Voice.
1) If a sentence starts with Wh words:- Why, How, When, Where, What then Wh words should be the same in passive Voice. But if a sentence starts with Wh words:- Who or Whom we generally use By whom in Passive Voice. like:-
- Who opened the box? [Active Voice]
- By whom was the box opened? [Passive Voice] OR
- Who was the box opened by? [Passive Voice]
2) In Passive Voice, an Interrogative sentence with auxiliary verb, auxiliary verb should be placed immediately after Wh words and then followed by the object.
Wh word → auxiliary verb → subject → object [Active Voice]
Wh word → auxiliary verb → object → subject [Passive Voice]
Why do you like ScoreKhel.com? [Active Voice, verb is according to subject you]
Why is ScoreKhel.com liked by you? [Passive Voice, verb is according to object ScoreKhel.com]
Note: While converting a sentence to Passive Voice, the auxiliary verb should be according to the object.
► Other rules for conversion remain the same as stated for general sentences above.